A carbocation is an ion with a positively charged carbon atom. Among the simplest examples are methanium CH5+, and ethanium C2H7+. Some carbocations may have two or more positive charges, on the same carbon atom or on different atoms; such as the ethylene dication C2H42+.
The carbocations are stabilized by the movement of either the lone pair of electrons or the cat sign. Electrons, in conjugation to the charged Carbon atom, are called classical Carbocations. The non-classical ion, on the other hand, involves 3 carbons with 2 electrons spread over them. This is called a 3-center 2-electron bond (hyper coordinate bonding) and is a clear marker for a non-classical ion.
A classical ion has a carbon with a sextet of electrons and 3 other bonds. The non-classical ion, on the other hand, involves 3 carbons with 2 electrons spread over them. A carbocation may be stabilized by, apart from inductive effect, resonance participation of double bond/s or non-bonded/lone pair electrons and hyperconjugation. If a carbocation is stabilized by a sigma bond through a 3-centered 2-electron bond with one of the carbon atoms having 5 bonds instead of the usual 4, it is called a non-classical carbocation. On the other hand, a classical cation will have only 3 bonds with an empty p orbital.
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